By Emily M. Hall
Graduate Student, Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University
As an average American but an extraordinary philanthropist, Matel Dawson Jr. (1921-2002) died only a few months after his retirement, having given away $1.3 million dollars to charity over his lifetime. His donations helped to fund activities at various Detroit-area and Louisiana churches, in addition to scholarships at Wayne State University. Other recipients of Dawson's generosity included the United Negro College Fund, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and assorted local colleges. At various interviews and public appearances, Dawson credited his parents with instilling in him "a strong work ethic and respect for others." It is after them that his endowed scholarship at Wayne State University is named (Sakely 2003).
Born the fifth of seven children in 1921, Matel Dawson Jr. learned the value of hard work at a young age. He left school in the ninth grade to help support his family in Shreveport, Louisiana. By the time he was eighteen, Dawson had moved to Detroit in search of a better job. In the days of Jim Crow, the North held better prospects for an African American man. He quickly landed a job with Ford Motor Company where he worked for over sixty years. Dawson retired at the age of eighty-one.
Although never receiving more than an eighth grade education, Matel Dawson valued higher education as a key to success for students of all races and backgrounds. Those beliefs are found throughout his family. His niece, for example, earned a Master's degree in education and is the principal of West Shreveport Elementary School, where Dawson attended school as a child (Pederson 2003). As a testimony to his commitment, over his lifetime, Dawson donated over $600,000 to Wayne State University alone. He called the Michigan institution his "favorite university" (Reynolds 2003). In 1996 he received an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from WSU, a gesture to recognize his contributions to the university (Sakely 2003).Although, at one time, he owned a large house and nice cars, Dawson adopted a more modest lifestyle after divorcing his wife of thirty-four years in 1977. He drove a used car and moved into a small apartment. As a forklift rigger at Ford's Rouge Center in Dearborn, Michigan, he often worked seven days a week and put in overtime. These work habits afforded him a $100,000 a year salary by the time he retired (Reynolds 2003). After retirement, Mr. Dawson stayed active at People's Community Church in Detroit, where he had been a member for decades. Additionally, he enjoyed the company of his daughter, JoAnn Dawson Agee, and grandson, Anthony Wayne Dawson (Pederson 2003).
Hailed as the "blue collar" or "forklift" philanthropist, Dawson's charitable activities call to mind those of Oseola McCarty, a washerwoman who donated $150,000 to the University of Southern Mississippi (University of Southern 2003). Donations like Dawson's and McCarty's illustrate the significance of the "average" person devoted to helping others and their potential impact on the field of philanthropy. Dawson's exceptional generosity serves as a model for nontraditional philanthropy; his contributions show that one need not be a millionaire - or live like one - to give away over one million dollars to nonprofit organizations and to make a lasting change on the lives of fellow citizens.
Ties to the Philanthropic Sector
Dawson's donations affected some of the most prominent and well-established African American nonprofit organizations in the United States. The NAACP and United Negro College Fund use donations to fund various programs ranging from lobbying for civil rights to scholarships for corporate internship programs. His giving to Wayne State University was designated to use his funds for an endowed scholarship, stipulating that it be awarded on a need basis to full-time students of any race (Reynolds 2003).Parade and People magazines honored Dawson for his philanthropy, as did ACDelco with their highly regarded Trumpet Award. Throughout numerous television and newspaper interviews, he insisted that he had enough for himself and encouraged others to save and then give away some of their money, too. He desired to leave a legacy that would encourage future generations to realize that they could overcome nearly any obstacle and find success in whatever path they chose.
Key Related Ideas
Endowed scholarships are one of the best ways for a donor or donors to determine how their money will be used at the university or college of their choice. As in Matel Dawson's case, the donor can stipulate the criteria for recipients, the amount to be awarded, and the number of scholarships to be awarded in a given timeframe. The endowed scholarship has become a popular way to honor or memorialize a loved one (in this case, Dawson's parents). Additionally, the initial donation for the scholarship is ideally invested so that only a portion of the interest is spent on scholarships each year. Thus, the scholarship will continue to be awarded long after the death of the donor.
Important People Related to the Topic
Oseola McCarty donated $150,000 to the University of Southern Mississippi in July 1995 after earning a living doing laundry and ironing out of her home for nearly seventy-five years. Although known for living frugally and saving her whole life, Miss McCarty's donation astonished even those who knew her well. The university now has an endowed scholarship in her name.
Related Nonprofit Organizations
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) - Formed in 1909, the NAACP works for the protection of civil rights for African Americans and other minorities. Through a system of local, regional, and national offices, the NAACP has confronted and affected change on issues such as lynching, segregation, and apartheid, to name a few. Currently, the organization focuses heavily on black voter turnout and full African American political empowerment.United Negro College Fund - The UNCF offers scholarship programs for students attending historically black colleges and universities, as well as those attending other UNCF-affiliated institutions. In addition to scholarships, the UNCF offers a large number of internships with major American corporations. Since 1944, the UNCF has led the way in the field of education for the African American community.
Related Web Sites
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Web site , at http://www.naacp.org , lists the organization's various activities both past and present, giving visitors and opportunity to see how they can get involved on a local level. The site also offers a link to the online version of The Crisis , which is the NAACP's official magazine, to allow visitors to read a synopsis of the current issue and order articles from its archives.
United Negro College Fund Web site , at http://www.uncf.org , provides visitors with information on its two key programs: scholarships and internships. They can also donate to the fund and learn about upcoming UNCF events nationwide. Additionally, the site offers a listing of member universities with brief synopses and Web links.
The Web page dedicated to Osceola McCarty on the University of Southern Mississippi Web site , at http://www.pr.usm.edu/oolamain.htm , offers information on the everyday philanthropist affectionately known as "the washerwoman." Visitors can read press releases related to McCarty's life and work. They can also contribute to her scholarship fund and submit their own thoughts on her life to a mailbox managed by the university.
Wayne State University's Web site , at http:// www.wayne.edu , provides information on the institution and available financial aid, including how to apply for the Bessie Hall Dawson and Mat Dawson Sr. Memorial Endowed Scholarship. Also, using the university's search engine will yield links to stories about Dawson's various contributions to the university over the course of several years
Bibliography and Internet Sources
____. " Ex-Wilmington Man Embodied Spirit of Giving. " Daily Breeze (March 28, 2003).
____. "Retired Forklift Rigger Gives Away $1.3 Million." The Detroit News (May 11, 2002).
Pederson, William D. "Matel Matt Dawson Jr.'s Legacy," Louisiana Lincolnater . [cited 15 April 2003]. No longer available.
Reynolds, Tom. "Blue Collar Philanthropist Establishes Memorial Scholarship." Wayne State University Campus News [cited 28 March 2003]. No longer available.
Sakely, Tom. "Wayne State Benefactor Matel Dawson Jr. Dies at 81." Wayne State University Campus News . [cited 28 March 2003]. No longer available.
University of Southern Mississippi. Oseola McCarty: A Very Special Lady, The Gift. [cited 10 April 2003]. Available from http://www.pr.usm.edu/oolamain.htm .
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