Learning to Give, Philanthropy education resources that teach giving and civic engagement

Legend: Red Square is Womens Perspective, Purple Triangle is African American Perspective, Aqua Circle is 'Everyday' Philanthropist

Philanthropy Briefing Papers

The Philanthropy Briefing Papers are abbreviated snapshots of significant concepts, people and organizations linked with philanthropy.

  • Concepts
  • People
  • Organizations
Please choose: Concepts, People or Organizations
Briefing Paper Women's Perspective African American Perspective 'Everyday' Philanthropist
Academic Service-Learning: The Reflection Concept
Defining Academic Service-Learning and the reflection concept associated with academic curriculum. More >>

Discusses the concept of "Reflection" as a vital component to Academic Service-Learning. As a result of reflection, students form conscious links between self, school and community and explore the value that comes from civic engagement.

African-American Women and Philanthropy
Historic overview of African American women as advocates and philanthropists and their impact on civil rights and womens rights. More >>

African American women have been instrumental in assisting runaway slaves, educating fellow women, forming social organizations and advocating for civil rights. Had it not been for their strong philanthropic efforts, many social movements may not have been as powerful and lasting.

Women's Perspective African American Perspective  
Defining altruism, its historical roots with the philanthropoic sector and the connection of altruistic behavior to academic disciplines. More >>

Explores the concept of action motivated by regard for others.

Animal Advocacy
Animal advocacy has ranged from an "animal welfarist" or "reformist" approach emphasizing gradual improvements in animal care and a reduction in animal suffering, to an "animal rights" approach promoting wholesale change including the protection of animals from being used or regarded as property by human beings. More >>

The animal advocacy movement has won significant progress on behalf of animals. Achievements by animal welfare organizations include the development of alternatives to many forms of whole-animal testing, successful voter referendums, and the creation of statewide feral cat and low-income sterilization programs.

Animal Assisted Interaction
Animal Assisted Interactions are delivered in a variety of environments by specially trained professionals, paraprofessionals, and/or volunteers, in association with animals that meet specific criteria such as mastery of basic obedience skills, a social demeanor, and enjoying interactions with strangers. More >>

There are many physical and emotional benefits derived from Animal Assisted Interactions. Animals play a hugely important role in the therapeutic process of many people, including family members and medical staff that care for the critically and chronically ill.

Animal Cruelty
Acts of violence or neglect perpetrated against animals are considered animal cruelty. Whether intentional abuse or neglect, all forms result in the physical and/or emotional suffering of the animal victim. More >>

Beyond the need to recognize and put an end to animal cruelty for the sake of the animal victims involved, also important is the very direct connection between animal cruelty and human violence. In response to this crisis, many domestic violence shelters have begun to partner with local animal protection agencies to create "safe havens" for the pets of the human victims.

Animal Ethics
An overview of the controversial subject of Animal Ethics and the movement that has been brought to the forefront by organizations like PETA and the Humane Society, and through issues like factory farming and scientific research on animals. More >>

Active involvement and attention to animal ethics has the potential to have a significant impact on domestic and global conditions within our society and our environment.

Animal Rights and Animal Welfare
Animal rights and animal welfare fall at different points on a continuum that runs from animal liberation at one end to animal exploitation at the other. Many distinctions can be made within these terms but both connote a concern for the suffering of others. More >>

It is often said animal welfare advocates argue for bigger cages whereas animal rights advocates argue for empty cages. Whether one adopts an animal rights or animal welfare perspective, animal protection is at the root.

Animal Shelters
Animal shelters provide care and treatment to animals needing protection, attempt to find homes for homeless animals and reunite lost pets with their families. When necessary, animal shelters provide a humane death for homeless or unadoptable animals. More >>

Animal shelters, at a minimum, provide a place for lost or abandoned animals to find homes. Many provide human law enforcement services, behavioral evaluations, remediation and enrichment, health and spay/neuter services, humane education and much more.

Animals in Entertainment
Animals in Entertainment refers to any animal(s) used to act, perform, fight and/or kill for the enjoyment of humans. The term encompasses many different forms of entertainment from circuses to bullfighting. More >>

Animals have been and will continue to be used in entertainment, often to the detriment of the animals. While laws are helpful in banning and regulating certain practices, it is the demand for entertainment that will always keep the business flourishing.

Annual Campaigns
Historical overview and description of annual fundraising campaigns for nonprofit organizations. More >>

Annual giving as a recurring, organized effort to raise funds for a not-for-profit organization and the myriad of fundraising techniques and special events that typically contribute to meet a nonprofit organization's current operating expenses.

Asian American Philanthropy
Defining Asian American philanthropy and the role it has played in "Civil Rights" movements for Asian American immigrants. More >>

Asian American philanthropy represents a continually evolving needs-based outlet for philanthropic endeavors. As the immigration from Asian countries continues today, the needs remain of the previously admitted immigrants from Asia. These identified needs mirror those needs of immigrants from other areas of the world.

Biodiversity is necessary for a thriving ecosystem. Many nonprofits fund organizations recogize the growing lack of diversity and work to play a part in preserving the world's habitats and ecosystems. More >>

Without biodiversity food, medications, industry, habitats, and ecosystems will falter. Biodiversity is what underlies many important ecological goods and services that provide benefits to humans, and it helps scientists understand how life functions and the role of each species in sustaining ecosystems.

Black Philanthropy
Defining Black Philanthropy in the United States and its significance throughout African-American history. More >>

Dr. Emmett Carson, a leading scholar of black philanthropy, challenges us to broaden the definition of philanthropy. Dr. Carson states, "One reason little has been written about black philanthropy is that the word philanthropy evokes images of large foundations and wealthy philanthropists, which are scarce in the black community. When one expands the concept to include giving money, goods, and time; blacks emerge as having a strong, substantial philanthropic tradition."

  African American Perspective  
Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOS)
An overview of The Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOS), a nonprofit environmental foundation organization located in Indonesia. More >>

The main goal of BOS is to protect orangutans, an endangered species, and the natural habitat they live in. The organization also focuses on reintroduction of orangutans into the wild.

Career Options in the Nonprofit Sector
Organizational structure and employment options for nonprofit organizations throughout the United States. More >>

Recognizes the diversity of job opportunities in the nonprofit sector with nearly 11 million people working as employees of nonprofit organizations in 1996 (approximately 7% of the nation's workforce).

Tracing the development of the term "Charity" from the 4th Century Latin term "Agape" to its philanthropic importance of today. More >>

Traces charity back to the 4th Century roots of "agape," translating love for mankind to a concern for their welfare.

Charity / Free Kindergartens
The concept of free kindergarten developed to incorporate elements of community outreach programs that were missing in private and public kindergarten programs. More >>

Charity/Free Kindergartens were specifically organized "as a reaction against industrialized, urban life and its effects on young children." Its goals were to assimilate and Americanize immigrants, to prepare students for entry into public elementary school, and to provide community-outreach and mothers' programs. Kindergartens, based on the ideas of German Friedrich Froebel, assumed three forms in the U.S.: private, public, and charity (or free).

Children in Fundraising
Youth experience fundraising through school and extra-curricular activities, such as scouting. Providing children fundraising opportunities for philanthropic causes contributes to the development of moral judgment and a better understanding of civic responsibility. More >>

As children become older, their ideas of philanthropy expand and their acts of helping and sharing increase with their new understanding of volunteerism and basic financial concepts

Civic Environmentalism
Civic partcipation in activities that encourage community involvement for the betterment of the environment. More >>

The goal is to ensure a sustainable community for future generations through participation in democratic processes. This is an important method for healing the environment and for developing thriving communities with active citizens.

Civic Responsibility
Civic responsibility, including social participation and action, is a core element to a democratic society. More >>

Comprised of actions and attitudes associated with democratic governance and social participation, civic responsibility can include participation in government, church, volunteers and memberships of voluntary associations. The importance of civic responsibility is paramount to the success of democracy and philanthropy. By engaging in civic responsibility, citizens ensure and uphold certain democratic values written in the founding documents.

Civic Skills
Civic skills can be described as the skills relating to or of a citizen, city, or citizenship. More >>

Civic skills provide the foundation for responsible and community-minded citizens, and reinforce our system of democracy. Those who possess and maximize the skills feel a link to their communities and to the well-being of other citizens.

Civic Virtue
Civic virtue is the moral underpinning of how a citizen bahaves and is involved in society. More >>

Examines the definition of civic virtue as morality or a standard of righteous behavior in relationship to a citizen's involvement in society. Civic virtue helps people understand their ties to the community and their responsibilities within it. In many ways, an educated citizen who possesses civic virtue is a public good.

Civil Rights Movement, The
An era dedicated to activism for equal rights and treatment of African Americans in the United States. More >>

An era dedicated to activism for equal rights and treatment of African Americans in the United States. During this period, people rallied for social, legal, political and cultural changes to prohibit discrimination and end segregation. The Civil Rights Movement was important to the history of the United States and the world, establishing that discrimination was unjust and would no longer be tolerated in the country, while setting an example for oppressed people everywhere.

  African American Perspective  
Civil Society and Advocacy
Civil society provides the mechanism for people to effect change in by collectively advocating for that change. More >>

The ideas "civil society" and "advocacy" are centrally important to any group or organization that seeks to reach a goal through persuasion rather than coercion.

Common Good
The common good relates to any philanthropic organization where a group of people come together for a cause or response. More >>

The "common good" is at the core of any situation where two or more people form a partnership, group or country. Many organizations exist for the purpose of providing common good: defense, mass-transit, public safety, public health and many other functions. Without common good, there would be no other reason to form an association.

An overview of the definition of community, examining the impact of commununities on philanthropy and the nonprofit sector. This paper also explores the impact of communities on a civil society. More >>

A look at the definition of community and how it has changed over the past century. What began as a homogeneous groups of people--typcially family groups--is now a diverse groups of individuals brought together by geography. The paper also examines the impact on the nonprofit sector.

Community Capital
Defining the development of community capital,or social capital, in an effort to build trust between various groups within a community. More >>

Community capital, frequently called "social capital," is defined as the "banked good will that helps build trust between various groups within a community." An important component of a strong civil society, community capital is built in the third sector by nonprofits and voluntary associations. Originally coined in 1916 by L.J. Hanifan, "social capital" resurfaced after the publication of Robert Putnam's successful articles and book Bowling Alone .

Community Needs Assessments
The importance of needs assessment and strategic planning for the development of a better community. More >>

Community Needs Assessments seek to gather accurate information representative of the needs of a community. Assessments are performed prior to taking action and are used to determine current situations and identify issues for action, establishing the essential foundation for vital planning. The process is an invaluable tool for involving the public in solving problems and developing goals. A needs assessment can be an excellent way for the public to become involved and contribute to the outcome(

Conservation International Foundation
The purpose of the Conservation International Foundation is to identify and eliminate threats to all forms of life around the globe. When nature’s ecological cycles are disturbed, people’s quality of life is, in turn, adversely affected. More >>

CIF works strategically with scientists, economists, communicators, educators and citizens to protect those areas with the richest biological resources. CIF receives financial support from private and public donors to fund its programs, and in turn awards grants to other partners implementing work supporting biodiversity preservation.

Corporate Giving
How and why corporations donate both a portion of their profits and in-kind contributions to a wide variety of nonprofit organizations. More >>

How and why corporations donate both a portion of their profits and in-kind contributions to a wide variety of nonprofit organizations.

Corporations as Philanthrophic Citizens
Corporations responsibility as a citizen and philanthropic agent in the community. More >>

Measuring the benefits nonprofit corporations and for profit corporations gain through corporate philanthropy and cause-related marketing campaigns has become a topic of importance in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Although corporations are not required by law to be philanthropic citizens, philanthropy has become part of their every day business practices. Corporate philanthropy can result in loyal customers, employees and shareholders.

Definition of Want vs. Need
Defining the historical and economical context of a Want vs. Need by examining its application to the public, nonprofit, and private sectors. More >>

The Economic theory of the "wants" and "needs" of society are very important to both the for-profit and not-for-profit sector. Each needs the other to succeed in their missions; both sectors are constantly trying to find their niche in the economy, and the mission of one is complimentary to the mission of another. However, the law of competition in the field of economic "wants" and "needs" continues to diversify the sectors while further exposing their importance to each other.

Economic Impact of the Volunteer Sector
This paper examines the economic and social impact of volunteers, the nonprofit sector and philanthropy. More >>

In 1996, nearly eleven million workers were employed by nonprofits (approximately seven percent of all workers in the United States). When the equivalent of 6.3 million full-time volunteers are combined with paid nonprofit employees, the revised figure totaled nearly eleven percent of all paid and volunteer workers in the United States economy. This paper examines the dynamic economic and social impact of the nonprofit sector.

How egoism relates to the motivation of donors to give philanthropically. More >>

Whereas altruism asserts that human beings should act in ways that help others, Egoism is a theory, in ethics, that human beings act or should act in their own interests and desires. Modern psychologist have been challenged to reconcile the two seemingly mutually exclusive theories expanding sphere of investments in others.

Emergency Preparedness
Emergency Preparedness may be defined as having a firm evacuation plan in case of emergency for all members, including pets, of the household. More >>

The American Red Cross calls preparedness "an everyday task for everyday life." Preparedness is vital not only for family members, but also pets. An emergency necessitating evacuation of both people and pets may include floods, fires, chemical spills and industrial accidents, gas leaks, hurricane, tornadoes, etc.

Endowment Building and Management
Understanding the composition and historical context of endowments and foundations. More >>

A permanent asset of an organization that is invested to earn income, endowments may come from several sources"individuals who contribute money to their favorite cause to sustain the specific efforts and programs of that organization, or businesses, government agencies, foundations, or other nonprofit organizations. While money is a major portion of an endowment, property and securities are also important elements. The majority of endowments are created in order to maintain perpetuity where organizations limit their payouts to ensure a continual, permanent stream of money.

Energy Crisis and the Nonprofit Sector
An overview of the concept of Energy Crisis and the involvement of the nonprofit sector in the Unites States. More >>

Each energy crisis this country faces focuses attention on energy consumption, the shortfall in supply vs. the increase in demand, and the need to explore alternative energy sources to meet escalating demand. Nonprofits play an increasingly large role in providing solutions to these challenging questions.

Enlightened Self-Interest
Examining Alexis de Tocqueville's "Enlightened Self-Interest" and its relation to philanthropy and civil society. More >>

Enlightened self-interest was a concept that Alexis de Tocqueville discussed in his work Democracy in America. He noted that Americans voluntarily join together in associations to further the interests of the group and, thereby, to serve their own interests. Using "self-Interest rightly understood" (Tocqueville 1835) to describe this concept, he combined the right of association with the virtue to do what was right.

Environmentalism and the role philanthropic agents, including organizations, play to preserve its natural resources. More >>

A social movement or an ideology focused on the welfare of the environment, environmentalism seeks to protect and conserve the elements of earth's ecosystem. Environmentalism works to correct the damage as well as prevent future destruction, spawning numerous environmental groups in America and around the world. Even with the combinations of legislation and improved corporate behavior, nonprofit organizations still play a significant role in achieving environmental goals.

Differentiating between the different foundations and their role in the nonprofit sector and the community. More >>

Foundations are nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations whose funds are managed by their own trustees and directors. Independent, corporate, operating and community foundations are formed for different reasons and serve varied purposes in their missions and communities.

Freedom of Religion
Reviews both the origin and basis for concern about religious freedom and its strong ties to the Constitution's First Amendment. More >>

Covers both the origin and basis for concern about religious freedom and its strong ties to the Constitution's First Amendment.

Freedom of Religion II
Perspective on the historic roots and importance of freedom of religion in the founding of the United States and its current influence on our legal, judicial and philanthropic systems. More >>

A second paper on this topic provides another student's perspective on the historic roots and importance of freedom of religion in the founding of the United States and its current influence on our legal, judicial and philanthropic systems.

Freedom of Speech
Review of the Freedom of Speech clause and how nonprofits and philanthropic organizations are free to express their ideas and beliefs. More >>

The First Amendment and freedom of speech are important to the nonprofit sector because they allow groups to organize, operate and speak freely as well as represent the needs of minority or disenfranchised populations which may not be met by the business or government sectors.

Giving Circles
A look at the increasingly popular trend of giving circles, also called investment clubs. Groups "pool" their monetary and intangible resources in order to address a common cause. More >>

Giving circles are of great importance within society, as they advance the status of philanthropic causes and create flexibility in giving, thereby widening the demographic span of those who wish to donate.

Hispanic Philanthropy
Latinos are increasingly working with each other and nonprofits to strengthen their community and create new opportunities. More >>

The Hispanic community has had a long-standing tradition of giving, which is generally done through organizations or causes that are close to the hearts of the individuals. Informal giving has been a strong value of the Latin American community for more than 500 years.

Hispanic Voter Project At Johns Hopkins University
Based on writings by the Project, this essay summarizes the Hispanic Voter Project at Johns Hopkins University and its philanthropic connections. More >>

The Hispanic Voter Project at Johns Hopkins University is a research project to identify the role of the Hispanic vote and understand the emerging power of the Latino vote in national elections. The Hispanic population in the United States accounts for half of the population growth between 2000 and 2004 and is critical in the election of the President of the US.

Holidays From a Philanthropic Perspective: Earth Day
The philanthropic origin and purpose of the environmental holiday celebrated globally called Earth Day. More >>

Earth Day was created in response to the continuing destruction of our planet and the recognition that action needed to take place to preserve that which exists now.

Holidays from a Philanthropic Perspective: Thanksgiving
A look at the origin of Thanksgiving and the philanthropic heritage of the November holiday. More >>

Festivals to celebrate abundance have occurred for thousands of years. When the English settlers came to America, the first Thanksgiving was celebrated. Individuals of various faiths celebrate this holiday and have started holiday traditions of giving food or resources to those who do not have an abundance.

Individual Rights and Community Responsibilities
The responsibility of individuals as part of the community and the duties and actions that accompany this idea. More >>

Today, citizenship requires that people be knowledgeable about public issues and possess the capacity to work toward solution by acting together. History records voluntary actions by private citizens working together to right injustices, change directions and pursue benefits for the common good. This list includes the abolition of slavery, women's suffrage, the civil rights movement. In every case, people voluntarily came together with a shared sense of purpose for the common good and with the i

International Philanthropy
The historical context of international philanthropy and its role in today's foreign policy. More >>

Sharing supplies, knowledge, cultural values and ideals is important to the promotion of global understanding and peace. Giving on the part of a nation allows the receiving country to be open and receptive to understanding the other's culture and approach to the issues at hand, opening the opportunity for communication and networking with other international groups.

Jewish Philanthropy: The Concept of Tzedakah
Defining the philanthropic origin and concepts of Tzedakah in the Jewish community. More >>

The Hebrew word for charity; giving aid, assistance and money to the poor and needy, or to worthwhile causes. It is the responsibility to give a portion of one's personal substance for the common good. But it is more than giving money to the poor; done properly, tzedakah requires the donor share his or her compassion and empathy along with the money. Judaism teaches the belief that donors benefit from tzedakah as much or more than the recipients.

Keep America Beautiful
KAB focuses on litter prevention, beautification and community improvement, and waste reduction, and is the largest community improvement organization in America. More >>

Keep America Beautiful was originally formed by a group of people representing for-profit companies from the beverage industry, an industry creating a significant amount of potential litter. KAB is funded by a combination of both private and corporate donations.

Key Dates and Events in American Philanthropic History 1815 to Present
Important events and dates in Philanthropic history from 1815 to present. More >>

Remembering the philosophies and actions of political and philanthropic leaders from history inspires us to continue and strengthen our philanthropic values. In the 1800s, Americans struggled with such concepts as the philanthropic duty as Americans and as human beings and the division of church and state. Later in that century, wealthy benefactors set up some of the nation's first grantmaking philanthropies. In the 1900s, tax reform made it easier to deduct funds for charitable purposes, furthe

Latino Donor: Motivations, Preferences & Interests
A look at the motivations, interests and preferences of Latino individuals who donate to various causes. More >>

Latino donors' motivations, interest and preferences are tied to their cultural background and their experience as immigrants. Informal philanthropy has been a way of life for Hispanic communities for centuries, cultivation a strong heritage for giving.

Latino Volunteerism
A brief study of the Latino culture of volunteerism, including the impact of government and tradition in Hispanic philanthropy. More >>

Latino volunteerism plays a fundamental role in Latino philanthropy. Although charitable giving is also an indispensable aspect of the Hispanic nonprofit sector, it appears that volunteering very often goes hand in hand with giving.

Mayflower Compact, The
Historical significance of the Mayflower Compact and its relation to philanthropy, civic action and civil society. More >>

The agreement set forth principles of a self-governed body not completely separate from the King of England. The Mayflower Compact continued the idea of law made by and for the people. This idea lies at the heart of democracy and made a significant contribution to the creation of a new democratic nation.

Means, Russell and Peltier, Leonard
The philanthropic efforts of Russell Means and Leonard Peltier who were active to address the treatment of Native Americans in the United States in the 1960s. More >>

The importance of both Russell Means and Leonard Peltier lies in the extent to which their efforts and actions have raised of the awareness of the American public to the harsh conditions faced by Native Americans on many reservations.

Motivations for Giving and Serving
Examines a variety of theories concerning why people contribute their time, talent and money for the common good. More >>

Without giving, it is reasonable to assume there would be no nonprofit or volunteer sector and little capital base from which to address social needs and problems and make necessary societal changes. The nonprofit sector has been built on three factors--financial giving, giving of time, and voluntary association (voluntarily belonging to a group). This paper examines a variety of theories concerning why people contribute their time, talent and money for the common good.

Native American Philanthropy (Paper I)
Defining the historical roots of Native American philanthropy and how it has shaped the current context of giving by tribal people. More >>

Native American tribes have a long and fascinating history of self-sufficiency and community support for their members. The giving-and-receiving reciprocity in the Native American communities has been informal, ceremonial and ritualistic. Its sole purpose has remained as a way of "helping out" in hard times. All gaming tribes are giving entities and contribute funds to charitable causes or to needy communities.

Native American Philanthropy (Paper II)
Giving in Native American cultures and the tribal philosophy of sharing, giving and receiving in a community. More >>

Giving in Native American cultures is a way of life rather than an obligation or a responsibility. Their religion and philosophy is based upon sharing, giving and receiving, and this concept of interconnectedness serves as a system to balance community resources.

Natural Resources
Governments and private citizens use, manage, and steward earth's natural resources to ensure the health and beauty of the environment for future generations. More >>

Stewardship of natural resources is an important topic for both organizations and individuals. The scarcity of these resources, especially those that are non-renewable, has fueled centuries of debate over how governments and private citizens use, manage, and steward earth's natural resources. By managing resource usage ethically and responsibly, good stewards of natural resources ensure the health and beauty of the environment for future generations.

New Money
New wealth that has been generated as a result of the current age prosperity from the boom in the high technology industry during the last quarter of the 20th Century. More >>

A term used to describe the new wealth that has been generated as a result of the current age of ultra prosperity created primarily by the boom in the high technology industry during the last quarter of the 20th Century.

Noblesse Oblige
The historical concept of Noblesse Oblige and how it applies to the philanthropic activities of a person sharing his/her special talents or gifts for the greater good. More >>

Nobility obligates historically meant that nobility had obligations to give. In modern society, it means each person sharing his/her special talents or gifts.

Non-Distribution Constraint
The Non-Distribution Constraint states that a nonprofit organization is prohibited from distributing its net. More >>

In general, a non-profit organization must retain and devote the entire net earnings, if any to financing further production of the services that the organization was formed to provide. In addition to other benefits, this serves as an incentive to potential donors.

Nonprofit Ability to Hold Political Power Accountable
Discusses the role and importance of nonprofits, such as voluntary associations and "watchdog" groups, in holding government policy, officials and agencies accountable. More >>

Whereas government imposes regulations, sets budgets, and creates policies that can restrict the activities of nonprofits and hold them accountable to the public, the ongoing development of nonprofits, and the changing nature of their relationship with government, has given rise to more nonprofits playing an active role in holding government accountable, influencing the direction of public policy, and ultimately protecting the nonprofit sector itself. This paper discusses ways that government st

Nonprofit Advocacy
Description of nonprofit advocacy as an important function to influence outcomes affecting the lives of the people served by the organization. More >>

Advocacy is an important function of most nonprofit organizations and describes a wide range of actions and activities that seek to influence outcomes affecting the lives of the people served by the organizations. Few nonprofit functions are more critical than advocacy""persuasively representing alternative perspectives to public and private decision makers.

Nonprofit Organizations (Definition and Examples)
Description of how and why nonprofit organizations exist for the public good and mutual benefit. More >>

Formed for the purpose of serving a public or mutual benefit rather than the pursuit or accumulation of owner or investor profit, over 2.1 billion nonprofit organizations are registered with the IRS with combined revenues of approximately $632.4 billion. An estimated 10.2 million people are employed in what has been variously called the third sector, independent sector, voluntary sector, philanthropic sector, social sector, tax-exempt sector, or the charitable sector.

Opportunity Costs and Charitable Giving
When a donor chooses to contribute an afternoon to a chosen cause, he or she is making a choice to time that would be spent doing an alternate activity. This is called an Opportunity Cost. All acts of philanthropy have opportunity costs. More >>

An overview of the concept that is defined as the difference between the return on one investment and the return on an alternative. Charitable giving is vital to the stability of the nonprofit sector, and the nonprofit sector is a vital economic source in many regions around the world.

A look at patriotism in the United States and its power to shape the nation. More >>

American patriotism permeates the nation, expanding to interests worldwide and desiring to see others live as we live, enjoying the same rights. It includes the show of affection, such as reaching out to embrace others in times of need.

Philanthropic Fundraising
Explores the strong traditions of collecting money for a cause or mission. More >>

Overall, philanthropic fundraising is only that money which is collected for a charitable purpose. Organizations that have philanthropic purposes do not use the collected money for the gain of their own workers.

Defining what philanthropy is and how it has intervened to affect societes, cultures and social problems. More >>

Philanthropy is a critical part of a democratic society. It is different than charity, which focuses on elimination the suffering cause by social problems, while philanthropy focuses on the elimination social problems. It supports projects and endeavors from which we all benefit, such as libraries, museums and scientific research; and it also supports efforts that may be too unpopular or controversial to gain the widespread support of the general public or the government.

Philanthropy and Minority Protection
Philanthropy and how it has influenced the protection of minorities and their efforts to obtain equal rights. More >>

In order to obtain equal rights and to protect their integrity and culture, minorities have formed various voluntary organizations to achieve their diversified goals. A broad definition of minority protection includes the ways in which civic groups organize themselves, as well as the measures taken to make the rights and benefits enjoyed by the majority of the population equally accessible to other races or ethnicities. The nonprofit sector has been a significant arena from which minority protec

Women's Perspective African American Perspective  
Philanthropy and the Bill of Rights
How the Bill of Rights was created to protect, promote plurality, autonomy and the freedom of choice much like the philanthropic sector allows citizens to exercise individual initiative and support democratic ideals. More >>

The Bill of Rights established a relationship between the federal government and its people. It is a set of standards against which other legislation is judged. The Bill of Rights was created to protect, promote plurality, autonomy and the freedom of choice much like the philanthropic sector allows citizens to exercise individual initiative and support democratic ideals; a backbone of our society.

Philanthropy and the Black Church
How the Black church is involved in organizing philanthropic efforts including meeting spiritual, psychological, financial, educational and basic humanitarian needs. More >>

Historically, the Black church has been a core institution for African-American philanthropy. It does not only serve as a faith-based house of worship, but it facilitates organized philanthropic efforts including meeting spiritual, psychological, financial, educational and basic humanitarian needs. Black churches are also involved in organizing and providing volunteers to the community and in civil and human rights activism.

  African American Perspective  
Philanthropy and the U.S. Constitution
These core values represent the underpinnings of philanthropy. More >>

The Constitution's philanthropic ties are summarized in its preamble, declaring the establishment of justice, the promotion of general welfare, and the securing of liberty.

Philanthropy Described in Democracy in America by de Tocqueville
Philannthropy as described by Alexis de Tocqueville, author of Democracy in America, after a nine month visit to the United States in 1831-32. More >>

de Tocqueville, a French civil servant from an aristocratic family, wrote Democracy in America following a nine month visit to the United States in 1831-32. He writes extensively about the American phenomenon of forming "associations" of all types including professional, social, civil, and political. He believed that associations extended democracy beyond the scope of elected offices, to the level of people who share a common. By forming and joining associations, Americans are casting a sort of

Philanthropy in Response to a Major Disaster: Case Study of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks
The importance, impact and relationship of philanthropy to a major disaster-September 11 terrorist attacks. More >>

Citing the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, this paper examines the outpouring of financial and human resources from across the United States and the world in response to the tragedy. Motivated by love, compassion and patriotism, these acts demonstrated some of the most generous acts of philanthropy this country has witnessed. The importance, impact and relationship of philanthropy to a major disaster is discussed.

Popular Sovereignty
Defining how popular sovereignty, a form of power a nation state has over itself and its people, relates to the concepts of philanthropy. More >>

Regardless of how the nation state gains power, its citizens are usually given certain rights. As a result, the nation state has certain rights such as liberty, or freedom from outside forces. This freedom is called popular sovereignty.

Program Evaluation
Defining nonprofit and philanthropic program evaluation in terms of operating efficiency. More >>

Program evaluation is defined as efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability of a department, program or agency. The purpose is to determine whether the program is efficient in terms of using resources wisely to perform the needed. Many foundations are now requiring those grant seekers to have a program evaluation process in place, and stipulations may state that programs not meeting their goals are unable to receive additional funds. Programs not meeting their goals may be viewed as inefficie

Prosocial Behavior
Prosocial behavior as it relates to the psychology of giving, helping and sharing for harmonious group relations. More >>

Used as a term only since the 1970s, prosocial behavior is the antonym of antisocial behavior. The research into the psychology of giving, helping and sharing has gained signficance as the key to harmonious interpersonal and group relations.

Public Good
Defining the role and importance of nonprofits in providing public goods. More >>

A public good is a good, often provided by a nonprofit organization, where one person's use does not reduce the amount available for others and where no one can be excluded from its use (for example, clean air and public parks). Neither markets nor government have incentive to provide an efficient amount of a public good because of free riders (people who do not pay but are able to consume the good).

Puppy Mills
A puppy mill can be described as a large-scale commercial dog breeding operation where profit is given a higher priority than the well-being of the dogs. The health of the dogs is disregarded in order to maintain a low overhead and maximize profits. More >>

There is an enormous demand for purebred puppies in the United States. As long as the demand for purebred puppies continues to exist, puppy mills will continue to operate.

An overview of the history and importance of the Jewish pushke, a container kept in the home to encourage anonymous giving and fulfill the command of demonstrating justice or righteous behavior. More >>

A pushke is a container kept in the home, used for collecting money that the family will use to donate to charity. This Jewish tradition originates with the Hebrew Bible, the Torah, in which G-d commands the people to perform acts of tzedakah the Hebrew word for "justice" or "righteous behavior." It is important to the commandment of giving tzedakah because it allows Jews to give anonymously.

Refugees have been forced to flee their homes because of well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group. War and ethnic, tribal and religious violence are leading causes of refugees fleeing their countries. More >>

Refugees are people just like you. Except, through no fault of their own, they are forced to flee their homes because of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group. War and ethnic, tribal and religious violence are leading causes of refugees fleeing their countries. Many people and organizations are working to help them find their way home again or find a new home and work.

Relationship of Philanthropy to the Industrial Revolution
An examination of the changes in philanthropy that were initiated because of the Industrial Revolution. More >>

Philanthropy goes beyond merely relieving need""it attempts to address the causes of that need. Many far-reaching social changes occurred as a result of the Industrialhttp://learningtogive.org/papers/maint/edit_paper.asp?mode=edit&bpid=54 Revolution. Factory work was boring with insecure jobs demanding long hours at low pay, usually with very dangerous working conditions. Child labor was common. Urbanization often brought crowded and unhealthy living conditions. The needs of widows and orphans grew as the traditional support network of family and community became le

Religious Basis for Charitable Giving
The connection between religious faith and charitable activities by members of faith based groups. More >>

Many religious faiths encourage charitable activity by its members. Although the reasoning and origin varies from one group to another, numerous similarities emerge as the basis for charitable giving. For example Christians often use the term "stewardship" when referring to financial giving while Jews use "tzedakah" to refer to "acts of charity" which include charitable giving. A general definition of "charity" is: "A voluntary giving of money or other help to those in need."

Responsibilities of a Nonprofit Board (The)
An examination of the "Ten Basic Responsibilities of Nonprofit Boards" and a board's routine governance activities within an organization. More >>

A nonprofit's board of trustees is responsible for overseeing the operation of the organization and assuring the organization's conformance with the law. The board ensures that its organization upholds the interests of the public--the foundation on which the nonprofit sector is built. This paper covers the "Ten Basic Responsibilities of Nonprofit Boards" and lists a board's routine governance activities within an organization.

Right To Assemble
How the right to assemble and the need to come together for a common belief is intricately related to the formation and growth of the philanthropic sector. More >>

The right to assemble is intricately related to the formation and growth of the philanthropic sector because it answers the need to come together, share common beliefs, and act upon those beliefs (concepts that have been so essential to this sector's creation). Groups form for many purposes, from reform movements (the Civil War, women's suffrage, the struggle for civil rights) to charitable organizations that meet specific needs (e.g., the American Red Cross) to churches, mosques and synagogues

Right to Petition Government (The)
The right to petition is one of the fundamental freedoms of all Americans, and is documented in the First Amendment to the Constitution of the US. More >>

The right to petition grants people not only the freedom to stand up and speak out against injustices they feel are occurring, but also grants the power to help change those injustices. The nonprofit community plays an active role by providing an organized medium to join citizens together in support of causes or in petition of practices that violate their cause.

RussiaCivil Society?
A brief look at the civil society attempting to emerge in the newly democratic Russia. More >>

In Russias recent history, the definition and existence of democracy has been questioned. Despite the lack of support by the government, the nonprofit sector has had some success.

Serial Reciprocity: Pay it Forward
An overview of the altruistic concept of Serial Reciprocity, also known as "Pay it Forward," and the motivations and effects of these selfless acts of kindness. More >>

Serial reciprocity is a series of sequential exchanges between parties. This set of exchanges is unique because they do not occur between two people in a closed quid pro quo arrangement. Instead, serial reciprocity is when people repay the benefits they have received - for example, from a parent, friend, mentor, anonymous stranger, or a previous generation - by providing benefits to a third party, someone other than their benefactor.

Defining how the term service is incorporated and related to philanthropy and altruism. More >>

Contributing to the welfare of others and/or acting voluntarily without expectation of return.

Service Learning and the Arts
Service learning can be enhanced by incorporating the arts. More than community service, service learning involves students using what they learn in their formal study to work with others and make a beneficial difference in the world. More >>

The arts is one of many ways to facilitate service learning. Once school created clay bowls for serving soup. The bowls were then auction off and the proceeds were given to a hunger-related charity.

Service Learning Program Evaluation
Service learning primarily involves measuring learning objectives of the participating students and the impact on the recipients of their service. More >>

Effective service learning is now seen as a major vehicle for education. Evaluation is a systematic process for an organization to obtain information on its activities, its impacts and the effectiveness of its work, so that it can improve its activities and describe its accomplishments.

Service Learning-Celebration Concept
Celebration is a vital component to sevice learning because it helps those involved feel proud of what has been accomplished, it strengthens self-esteem and can provide ongoing support and energy to a long-term project or it can provide appropriate closure. More >>

There are several models that facilitate strong service learning, but each should incorporate the practice of celebration, reflection and recognition.

Service Learning: Special Education Inclusion
Service Learning: Special Education Inclusion is somewhat new in the evolving concepts of both Special Education and Service Learning. More >>

It is beneficial to educators and the community because it teaches life skills and useful talents to individuals who have historically been demeaned and dismissed by society.

Social Contract (The)
The philanthropic influence and outcomes of this age-old concept that is the the fundamental basis for the development of government and law. More >>

Social contract theory set foundation concepts that became the underpinnings of democratic government. The theory influenced the implementation of democratic government in many countries and had particular influence on the framers of the U.S. Constitution.

Social Investment Funds in Latin America
Social Investment Funds are funds that were created through a number of governments in Latin America, and are administered by politically neutral members of the private sector to address the unequal distribution of wealth, primarily, to the poor. More >>

Social Investment Funds have far reaching effects that expand beyond the current measurements of success. These funds have created a new approach to poverty in Latin America in how it engages its citizens in the direct organization and provision of programs for employment, education, and health.

Social Movement
How philanthropic acts of financial giving, voluntary action, and association between individuals have been the basis for U.S. social movements from abolition to women's rights to the Civil Rights movements. More >>

A social movement consists of a number of people organized and coordinated to achieve some task or a collection of goals, often the participants are interested in bringing about social change. Throughout the history of the United States, social movements have been a staple in the maturation of the country. Philanthropic acts of financial giving, voluntary action, and association between individuals have been the basis for U.S. social movements from abolition to women's rights to the Civil Rights

Special Event Fundraising
An examiniation of how special events are used for fundraising and development purposes of nonprofit organizations. More >>

Special events are the most common fundraising device used by small nonprofit organizations. The limitless variety and flexibility of special events make them ideal for acquiring and retaining donor support. One or two special events each year can greatly assist organizations in building a broad base of individual donors, which allows the organization to increase its annual giving. A number of early nonprofit organizations used special event fundraising to raise needed financial support for thei

An abiding perspective on stewardshipand the attitude that defines an obligation to serve and take responsibility for all we have been given. More >>

An abiding perspective on the mutuality of life in human society; a personal stance and attitude that defines an obligation to serve and take responsibility for all we have been given.

Suffrage Movement
The importance of the Suffrage Movement in relation to philanthropy, grassroots advocacy and the nonprofit sector. More >>

The Suffrage Movement refers, specifically, to the seventy-two-year-long battle for woman's right to vote in the United States. Rooted in the abolition of slavery, the movement promoted civic action among newly enfranchised women through organizations like the League of Women Voters and the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Famous suffragettes Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organized the first woman's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848. In 1919, the U. S.

Women's Perspective    
Tax Incentives—An Economic Basis for Charitable Giving
Tax Incentives for Charitable Giving,Tax Incentives for Philanthropy,Tax Deducations,Tax Credits,Tax Benefit for Donations,Tax Deducations for Donations. More >>

The trend of government abandoning some needed services makes the need critical for philanthropy. Often, government action is based on the assumption the nonprofit sector will fill the remaining void. In filling this void and funding these services, nonprofits become more dependent on charitable giving, which is an essential part of the philanthropic sector. Tax incentives encourage the type of behavior required to create this effective philanthropy.

Teaching Tolerance
An overview of tolerance and its critical importance to the subject of philanthropy. The paper also examines the history of tolerance, or lack thereof, from slavery to the creation of the United Nations. More >>

Being kind and accepting of others, regardless of their race, religion, culture, gender, or economic background is at the heart of every philanthropic act.

Tikkun Olam
An overview of the Hebrew phrase tikkun olan, meaning "world repair." From the Mishnah teachings, it is synonymous with social action and justice. More >>

A jewish concept defined by acts of kindness performed to perfect or repair the world. The phrase is found in the Mishnah, a body of classical rabbinic teachings. It is often used when discussing issues of social policy, insuring a safeguard to those who may be at a disadvantage. In modern Jewish circles, tikkun olam has become synonymous with the notion of social action and the pursuit of social justice.

Discusses the philanthropic origin of tithing and its connection to religion and faith based organizations. More >>

Generally defined as a tenth of the fruits of one's labor owed to God in recognition and thankfulness, tithes are traditionally paid to one's religious institution. Today, tithing includes wages earned by employment or secured by other lawful means such as inheritance or royalties. This tithe is generally given as a donation to a house of worship that then pays for the salaries of its religious leaders and support staff, for establishment and upkeep of worship facilities, and for the ongoing ope

Trusteeship and the responsibilities board members play in managing a nonprofit organization. More >>

Trustees are those Individuals who volunteer to assume the legal obligations of managing an organization or institution that operates in the public trust. Knowledgeable and influential people, trustees come together to ensure that an organization is run efficiently, ethically, and true to its mission. Trusteeship is important because boards of trustees 1) allow for individual and group participation in creating the common good. 2) act as filters in determining which issues are important, and, 3)

Historical roots of voluntary action for the common good. More >>

Historical roots of voluntary action for the common good.

Women & Philanthropy at UCLA
The successful involvement of women in the philanthropic community at UCLA. More >>

The group started to involve women as fuller participants in university life and to answer several questions posed by development officers at UCLA, such as gender differences in major donors and motivations of women to give philanthropically, among others. Years later, statistics show that women are achieving more success in the workplace, becoming more aware of social issues and becoming more involved financially in philanthropy.

Women and Philanthropy
The role of women as philanthropists and social change agents in the community. More >>

Although women have traditionally been volunteers, they have not been widely recognized as philanthropic donors, until recently. Increased wealth among women has resulted in a recent surge of committed women philanthropists who are fulfilling their desire for involvement and change.

Women's Perspective    
Women's Use of the Nonprofit Sector As an Alternative Power Source
Women and their involvement in the nonprofit sector to gain and hold power and influence. More >>

Women have had to find alternative means of exerting influence over societal structure and conventional beliefs because they have not been entitled to equal rights, opportunities or treatment compared to their male counterparts. Yet, the nonprofit sector has proven to be an effective vehicle for women in providing them with a relative seat of power. Largely through the establishment of nonprofit organizations, women have gained valuable experience in the workings of politics, law, governance, finance, and diplomacy

Women's Perspective    
Youth Philanthropy
Youth Philanthropy can be defined as youth giving of their time, talents and treasure. More >>

Overall some of the activities that involved youth community services include: asking youth what they care about, discovering how to empower them as leaders in their communities, and providing opportunities for youth to participate in volunteering with community services.