Three Forty-Five Minute Class Periods
The learner will:
- identify and describe how six individuals formed organizations/or worked for the common good immediately before, during or after the Civil War.
- analyze why the work of Laura Smith Haviland was philanthropic and supported the Core Democratic Values.
Put a sign around your neck with a message such as, "Will work for food." As students enter the classroom, just stand without making any comment regarding the sign.
After all of the students have assembled, begin by making this statement, "Have you ever seen a sign like the one I'm wearing? Where? What do you think it means? How does it make you feel? If you had to wear such a sign like the one that I am wearing, what would you do? Why? What if you did not wear a sign, had plenty of food to eat and could afford to feed anyone who wore a sign like this one? What would you do?" Give students time to digest and provide answers to your questions.
- Explain that there have been times throughout our history when individuals have needed to be uplifted by the assistance of others. Before, during, and after the Civil War, many individuals felt hardships. Write 1850-1877 on the board or chart paper. Survey and record student responses as you uncover their general knowledge about the Civil War and the conditions of the country. Record this information using the KWL (What We Know, What We Want to Know, What We Have Learned or Need to Learn) format. Students should take notes. Emphasize that 1850-1877 should be used as the time frame for the lesson.
- Distribute the Vocabulary List (Attachment One). Group students in cooperative learning groups of two or three. Assign one or two words to each group for defining. Display the Internet address www.learningtogive.org for some of the definitions. Make available Before the Mayflower, By the People: A History of Americans as Volunteers, class textbooks and other books needed for reference. After sufficient time has been given for research, as a whole group, go over the terms, allowing students to take notes and verifying that the terms are clear.
- Ask the learners why they believe individuals such as the Quakers or those who formed the Underground Railroad took the stands and actions they did. Was there any relationship between what they did and the Core Democratic Values? Read Laura Smith Haviland (Attachment Two). Ask students to generate a list of words that describe the character of Laura Smith Haviland. In what way could she be considered a philanthropist?
- Distribute Doing the Right Thing (Attachment Three). Ask students to work independently to find other samples of individuals and organizations which represented examples of the Core Democratic Values during the period from 1850 to 1877. Go over resources that are available for research. Go over the Rubrics provided in Assessment with the students. The chart may be completed during the next class period, if necessary.
- Complete charts and the writing task on the back of the chart. Share information collected. Discuss how these individuals and organizations could be considered philanthropic, giving of their time, talent or resources.
|4 Points||Identifies six individuals/organizations including benefit, location/community served, CDV (Core Democratic Value), and source.|
|3 Points||Identifies four or five individuals/organizations including at least three of the following elements — benefit, location/community served, CDV (Core Democratic Value), and source.|
|2 Points||Identifies three individuals/organizations including at least three of the following elements — benefit, location/community served, CDV (Core Democratic Value), and source.|
|1 Point||Identifies one or two individuals/organizations including two of the following elements — benefit, location/community served, CDV (Core Democratic Value), and source.|
Lesson Developed By:Ramona Purdy
Fugitive Slave Law
Core Democratic Values including:
pursuit of happiness
Rather than merely supplying food and clothing for fugitives who hid in her husband's barn, Laura Smith Haviland operated out in the open and, often, alone. Her farm was located on the Raisin River in Lenawee County (near Adrian, Michigan). She was a Quaker and headed the local antislavery society.
She opened the Raisin Institute in 1837 where girls learned sewing and housework and boys learned how to farm. Her school was the first in Michigan to admit African-American children.
When an epidemic killed most of her family in 1845, Haviland began to take a more active role in the antislavery movement. Her highest priority was to help protect the fugitives and freedpeople living in or near the community. When confronted by slave catchers, she blew a horn which summoned help from sympathetic neighbors and scared off the interlopers. If necessary, she escorted former slaves to one of the state's many Underground Railroad stations.
At times she left the area and state in efforts to spring traps set by slave catchers. Eventually, Haviland made her way to Cincinnati where she nursed sick fugitives and taught African-American children at Underground Railroad stations. Often, she single-handedly took fugitives to Canada or brought enslaved persons out of the South.
Because of her work and the condemnatory letters she sent to slave owners, a $3,000 reward was offered for her capture, dead or alive. Even in the North, she had few friends because many felt a woman's place was in the home.
She continued her work, establishing a school for escaped slaves in Windsor, Ontario in 1852. Ten years later she taught, clothed, and fed freed people ignored by most Civil War relief efforts. Before her death she also became involved in other causes: the need for orphanages, women's rights, and prohibition.
Directions: Complete the chart for the individuals or organizations listed. Then finish with information that you have researched. Select one of the individuals or organizations. On the back of this sheet, tell what you think made the individual or organization unique. Tell what you learned about the individual/organization.
|Young Men's Christian Association||
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