Two to Three Forty-Five to Sixty-Minute Class Periods
The learner will:
- define "faction."
- explain the cause of "factions."
- identify an example of "factions" in current world events.
- cite problems/dangers created by "factional fighting."
- predict at least one benefit of "factional" activities.
Divide the class into six cooperative groups of four-six students. Give each group an index card with three groups of people listed on it. See Index Cards (Attachment One). Each cooperative group must decide if the groups of people on their cards are communities, then explain why or why not.
- Read The Butter Battle Book aloud to the class, and then facilitate a discussion on the following questions:
- What happened to the community in this book?
- Why did this happen?
- What was the difference of opinion about?
- What was the result?
- Use the results of this discussion to lead to the introduction of the term faction (a group with a common interest that is often quarrelsome or self-seeking). This definition should be written on a card and posted, along with the definition of community (from previous lesson).
- Using Game: Dividing Into Groups (see Attachment Two), play a game to divide the class into factions.
Teacher Note: Part of this lesson is to be taught in one segment (early in the day), and will need to be completed and assessed at the end of the day.
- Give each student a copy of the lyrics to a story that has been made into a song, "One Tin Soldier."
- Tell the students to read along as the song is played. After hearing the song (once or twice, depending on the ability of the class), ask comprehension questions, such as:
- What happened to the community in this song?
- Why did this happen?
- What are these groups called? (factions)
- What was the result?
- Does this happen in "real life?"
- What are some examples? (race relations in the United States, religious differences in Northern Ireland, ethnic differences in Yugoslavia, tribal differences in Rwanda, older people/younger people, etc.)
Teacher Note: Students may be unfamiliar with some of these situations. If necessary, take time at this point to study some current or historical events.
- Can any good things come from the activity of factions? What?
- Have students take part in Simulation Game (see Attachment Three).
Give each student a copy of Assessment (see Attachment Four), a questionnaire that asks them to identify their feelings during the simulation. The questionnaire will also ask students to predict possible outcomes (if the simulation continued) and discuss some potential dangers, problems, or benefits of factional activities.
Students (with adult assistance) can search for articles in periodicals (newspapers, magazines, etc.) that report examples of factional activities. These may be brought to school and posted on a bulletin board and/or read aloud or summarized by the students.
Students can do additional research on an example of factional activities in historic or current events. These could be published as written or oral reports and/or pictures.
Lesson Developed By:Sally Engleman Cioe
Using six 5 x 9 (unruled) index cards, write the names of three groups on each card. Three cards will be groups that are examples of communities and three groups will be examples that are not communities. (These cards are to be used with this lesson's Anticipatory Set under Instructional Procedures.)
Groups that are communities:
Card One - Boy Scouts, Girls Scouts, 4-H Club
Card Two - Mickey Mouse Club, Sesame Street, Mister Rogers Neighborhood
Card Three - New York Yankees, Detroit Red Wings, Chicago Bulls
Groups that are not communities:
Card Four - baseball team, golfer, tennis player
Card Five - fans at a football game, shoppers in a store, patients waiting at a Doctor's office
Card Six - passengers on a bus, people at Pizza Hut, visitors at Disney World
Note: Once begun, this game will be continued throughout the day, at the discretion of the teacher. At a given point, the students must change roles and then finish the simulation as the "other" faction.
Preparation: Make two sets of badges from construction paper that obviously contrast. Make one set of circles in one color (with "smiley" faces) and another set in a different color (with "frowning" faces.) Laminate these, if you wish. Have enough of one kind of badge for approximately half of the class and enough of the other for the remainder of the class.
Conceal the badges in an opaque container. Mix by shaking. Allow each student to draw one badge (without looking) and wear the badge on the right shoulder. Masking tape will work especially well, if the circles are laminated.
As soon as all students are wearing their badges, begin immediately to give preferential treatment to one set of students. Examples may include giving a candy treat to everyone with a "smiley" face, allowing them to line up first, giving them extra recess. The group with the "frowning" faces should be plainly discriminated against, such as, no drinks for those with frowning faces, no candy, last in line, etc. This should continue for a portion of the day, at the teacher's discretion.
When the teacher decides that the class is ready to change roles, each student with a "smiley" badge must trade with a student who has a "frowning" badge. (You may want to have some extras on hand, in case they become too worn out or lost.)
Resume preferential treatment of the students with "smiley" faces, as well as discrimination against those with the "frowning" faces. Important Note: All students must have reversed roles.
Continue in this manner throughout the day, while teaching other lessons and doing other activities. As you near the end of the day, allow enough time for the students to complete the processing questionnaire/assessment (see Attachment Four).
Each student must complete the questionnaire in an intrapersonal (self-smart) manner. He or she may not confer with others while working on this portion of the lesson.
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